The history of pharmacy and medication

Pharmacy is derived from the Greek word pharmakeia, meaning “use of drugs, medicines, potions, or spells; poisoning, witchcraft; remedy, cure.” The practice of pharmacy has been around for thousands of years, and healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. There is evidence that Neanderthals used pain-killers and antibiotics to self-medicate as early as 49,000 […]

A brief history of biofuels: from ancient history to today

Biofuels were once our primary fuel Biofuels and bioenergy are as old as civilization itself.  Solid biofuels like wood, dung and charcoal have been used ever since man discovered fire, and are still used today for cooking and heating in many communities in developing countries. Even liquid biofuels such as olive oil and whale oil […]

The curious history of the Christmas tree

The Christmas tree is one of the most iconic winter traditions of modern culture. It graces homes and office buildings all over the world and it has been accepted as a symbol of the holiday season by Christians, many other faiths as well as the secular community. The Christmas tree has been a subject of controversy for […]

Hermeticism: the nexus between science, philosophy and spirit

Last week, I summarized the history of alchemy in Europe, the Middle East, India and China. Alchemy is tradition spanning millennia that influenced the development of modern chemistry, medicine, philosophy and psychology. Western alchemy blends Greek, Egyptian, Islamic and Jewish traditions, and is a branch of Hermetic philosophy, which is based on the works of […]

Alchemy: how a tradition spanning millennia became modern chemistry

Alchemy is generally seen as an archaic proto-science based on superstition that is of little interest to the modern chemist. In truth, chemistry owes much to alchemy, which covers philosophical traditions and chemical history spanning several millennia in the Middle East, China, India and Europe. Alchemy has played a significant role in the development of […]

Dreams and visions in scientific innovation  

  “The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.” – Albert Einstein Scientists and researchers spend over two decades in school learning to identify problems, design projects, construct experiments, collect data, conduct literature reviews, calculate, […]